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）、工艺冷却、压缩空气以及一些其他的设施。 I. Summary: There are many places in the clean room that can save energy, such as heating, ventilation and air conditioning ( HVAC ), process cooling, compressed air, and some other facilities.
HVAC systems consume more than half of the electricity used by the entire chip manufacturing plant. HVAC 的容量过剩，很大程度上是因为在设计和建造工厂时走捷径，尽可能地压缩前期投入，而不顾后期运行费用。 The reason for the large amount of wasted electricity and excess capacity of HVAC is largely due to taking shortcuts when designing and constructing the factory to reduce the initial investment as much as possible, regardless of the later operating costs. High-efficiency design and high-efficiency equipment require a large up-front investment. “ 小处节约大处浪费 ” 的所谓捷径和削减成本，会造成工厂的运行性能降低和能耗增加。 The so-called shortcuts and cost reductions of " saving small and saving a lot of waste " will result in a reduction in the operating performance of the plant and an increase in energy consumption.
Alterations to established factories are often plunged into meaningless economic eddies. The return on investment for upgrades is usually much higher than buying new equipment directly. 也就是说，通常投资收回率至少是 50% ，对照投资新的固定资产，则只有 10% 到 15% （即投资回收期需要七年时间）。 The investment payback period for the renovation of most factories and equipment does not exceed two years - that is, usually the investment return rate is at least 50% , compared with the investment of new fixed assets, only 10% to 15% (that is, the investment payback period requires seven years time). These conditions have reduced the competitiveness of companies and the interest of investment shareholders. In today's highly developed industries, factory operations need to be reformed just like product design.
There are many examples of efficient use of energy. Mining wasted energy can increase profits more than selling products, because the saved money is immediately reflected in the final benefit. Although the cost of energy accounts for less than 2% of the cost of chip products, electricity is the largest expenditure of chip manufacturers in operation, and each factory consumes a total of millions of dollars per year. When building a new plant, energy saving measures can save capital and construction time. Although preliminary designs are expensive, the possibility of economic refurbishment remains. The investment payback period for equipment refurbishment does not exceed two years. Overall, the investment recovery rate is relatively high to a certain extent.
冷却盘管的速度。 I. Low section wind speed design The section wind speed is the speed at which air in the air handling part passes through the filter or heating / cooling coil.
经验 ” 把空气处理器设计成 500 英寸 / 分钟。 Most engineers design the air handler to 500 inches / minute based on " experience ." Although this design saves time, it increases operating costs. LFV ）设计中，使用更大的空气处理器和更小的风机，从而降低空气的流速，降低能耗和设寿命成本。 In the low-profile wind speed ( LFV ) design, a larger air processor and a smaller fan are used, thereby reducing the air flow rate, reducing energy consumption and reducing the life cost.
The pressure drop determines the energy loss of the fan. 平方定则 ” 可知压降与速度下降的平方成正比。 It can be known from the " square rule " that the pressure drop is proportional to the square of the speed drop. 20% ，那么压降将下降 36% ；如果断面风速降低 50% ，压降将下降四分之三。 If the cross section wind speed is reduced by 20% , then the pressure drop will decrease by 36% ; if the cross section wind speed is reduced by 50% , the pressure drop will decrease by three-quarters. “ 立方定则 ” ，风机能耗的变化与流量变化的立方成正比。 According to the " cubic rule " , the change in the energy consumption of the fan is proportional to the cube of the change in flow. 50% ，风机能耗将下降 88% 。 If the air flow is reduced by 50% , the energy consumption of the fan will be reduced by 88% .
Therefore, larger air handlers, larger filters, and coil areas consume less fan energy, and smaller fans and motors can be used. The small fan adds less heat to the air, reducing the difficulty of cooling. Coils with smaller thicknesses are easier to clean and work more efficiently, so the temperature of frozen water can be higher. The filter works better and has a longer life under the condition of low section wind speed.
The LFV design reduces air and water pressure drops and reduces the amount of water carried by the cooling coils. 10% 到 15% 。 Streamlined design with almost no sharp corners, reducing pressure drop by 10% to 15% .
The LFV design can also reduce the pressure drop by a quarter. 25% ，减小变速风机的大小。 The goal is to reduce energy losses by at least 25% and reduce the size of variable speed fans. 250-450 英尺 / 分钟，具体取决于使用情况和能量消耗。 The optimal section wind speed range is 250-450 feet per minute, depending on usage and energy consumption.
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